. . . Predicting and Minimizing Environmental Impacts . . .

Marine Wildlife Behavior Database


Section 7: Diving Speed

Section 1: Reference

Section 8: Dive Angle

Section 2: Identification of Subject

Section 9: Surfacing Angle

Section 3: Dive Depth

Section 10: Surface Behavior

Section 4: Dive Time

Section 11: Time At-Sea/On-Land

Section 5: Bottom Behavior

Section 12: Movement

Section 6: Vertical Rate

Literature Cited


Literature Cited

CETAP. 1982. A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid- and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf, Final Report.  No. Ref. No. AA51-CT8-48. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C.

Fagen, R. M. and D. Y. Young. 1978. Temporal patterns of behaviors: Durations, intervals, latencies, and sequences. Pp. 79-114. In P. W. Colgan, ed. Quantitative Ethology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

Frankel, A. S., W. T. Ellison and J. Buchanan. 2002. Application of the Acoustic Integration Model (AIM) to predict and minimize environmental impacts. Journal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Oceans 2002 Symposium:1438-1444.

Houser, D. S. 2006. A method for modeling marine mammal movement and behavior for environmental impact assessment. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 31(1):76-81.

Johnson, M. and P. L. Tyack. 2003. A digital acoustic recording tag for measuring the response of wild marine mammals to sound. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 28(1):3-12.

Ponganis, P. J., E. P. Ponganis, K. V. Ponganis, G. L. Kooyman, R. L. Gentry and F. Trillmich. 1990. Swimming velocities in otariids. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(10):2105-2112.

Read, A. J., P. N. Halpin, L. B. Crowder, K. D. Hyrenbach, B. D. Best, E. Fujioka and M. S. Coyne. 2007. OBIS-SEAMAP: mapping marine mammals, birds and turtles. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://seamap.env.duke.edu.

Schreer, J. F., K. M. Kovacs and R. J. O'Hara Hines. 2001. Comparative diving patterns of pinnipeds and seabirds. Ecological Monographs 71(1):137-162.