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Diving behavior and performance of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoenaM, in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan

Otani, Seiji; Naito, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Akito; Kawaski, Masahiro; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Kato, Akiko. 1998. Marine Mammal Science. Vol. 14:2, 209-220.

In order to monitor the diving behavior of free-ranging cetaceans, microdataloggers, with pre-programmed release mechanisms, were attached to the dorsal fins of two female harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan, in 1994. The two loggers were successfully recovered and a total of 141 h of diving data (depth and water temperature in 4,671 dives) was obtained. Both porpoises dived almost continuously, rarely exhibiting long-term rest at the surface. Maximum dive depths were 98.6 m and 70.8 m, repsectively, with more than 70% of diving time at 20 m or less. Most shallow dives were V-shaped with no bottom time. The V-shaped dives were significantly shallower in dive depth and shorter in dive duration than U-shaped dives. Descent rate was not constant during a dive. The deeper the dive depths, the faster the mean descent and initial descent rates. This suggests that porpoises have anticipated the depth to which they will dive before initiating the dive itself.

Diving behavior and swimming speed of free-ranging harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

Otani, Seiji; Naito, Yasuhiko; Kato, Akiko; Kawamura, Akito. 2000. Marine Mammal Science. Vol. 16:4, 811-814.

Diving behaviour of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena

Westgate, Andrew J.; Read, Andrew J.; Berggren, Per; Koopman, Heather N.; Gaskin, David E. 1995. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.. Vol. 52, 1064-1073.

Diving behaviour of lactating harbour seals and their pups during maternal foraging trips

Bowen, W. D.; Boness, D. J.; Iverson, S.J. 1999. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 77:6, 978-988.

Female harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) undertake foraging trips during mid to late lactation. We show that they are accompanied by their pup during many of these foraging trips. Time–depth recorder data were obtained from 20 lactating females and 14 of their pups in 1995 and 1996 at Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Overall, females spent 55.4 ± 4.68% (mean ± SE) of their time at sea compared with 39.8 ± 2.29% for pups. Like those of their mothers, pups’ dives occurred in clusters or bouts: 71.4 ± 4.4 dives, 2.5 ± 0.15 h in duration. Bouts of diving by females and pups began 0–3 days post partum. Mean dive duration of pups increased from about 1 to 1.5 min over the course of lactation, but was still shorter than that of adult females (1.5–2.25 min). Both females and pups appeared to dive within their theoretical aerobic dive limits (TADL) of 8.9 and 2.6–3.1 min, respectively. Up to 3.6% of dives by some pups may have exceeded their TADL. Pups appeared to compensate for their lesser diving ability by making more and shorter dives per bout than females, particularly during early lactation.

Distribution and diving of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Svalbard

Gjertz, I; Lydersen, C; Wiig, O. 2001. Polar Biology. Vol. 24:3, 209-214.

Regional differences in diving behavior of harbor seals in the Gulf of Alaska

Hastings, K.K.; Simpkins, K.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Swain, U.G.; Small, R.J. 2004. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 82:11, 1755-1773.

Adult and subadult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); n = 108) from Southeast Alaska (SE), Kodiak Island (KO), and Prince William Sound (PWS) were instrumented with satellite data recorders to examine dive parameters for harbor seals in the Gulf of Alaska at regional and annual scales. Most dives (40%–80%) were <20 m in depth and <4 min in duration; however, dives from 50 to 150 m depth were not uncommon and dives to 508 m were recorded. PWS seals spent less time in the water during the prebreeding and breeding seasons than SE and KO seals. SE seals used a greater diversity of depths than KO and PWS seals. Only seals in PWS and SE (i) dived deeper and longer and spent more time diving in winter than during spring and summer and (ii) dived deepest during the day only in winter. Seals in all regions and seasons dived most frequently and spent the most time diving at night. Subadult seals spent more time diving, dived more often, displayed a stronger diurnal pattern with deepest dives during the day in the winter, and dived deeper than adults.

Functional classification of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) dives using depth profiles, swimming velocity, and an index of foraging success

Lesage, V.; Hammill, M.O.; Kovacs, Kit M. 1999. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 77:1, 74-87.

Time–depth–speed recorders and stomach-temperature sensors were deployed on 11 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the St. Lawrence estuary to examine their diving and foraging behavior. Fifty-four percent of dives were to depths of <4 m. Dives that were ³ 4 m deep were classified into five distinct types, using a combination of principal components analysis and hierarchical and nonhierarchical clustering analyses. Feeding, indicated by a sharp decline in stomach temperature, occurred during dives of all five types, four of which were U-shaped, while one was V-shaped. Seals swam at speeds near the minimum cost of transport (MCT) during descents and ascents. V-shaped dives had mean depths of 5.8 m, lasted an average of 40 s, and often preceded or followed periods of shallow-water (< 4 m) activity. Seals invariably dove to the bottom when performing U-shaped dives. These dives were to an average depth of 20 m during daylight and occurred in shallower waters (~8 m) at twilight and during the night. Once on the bottom, seals (i) swam at MCT speeds with occasional bursts of speed, (ii) swam at speeds near MCT but not exceeding it, or (iii) remained stationary or swam slowly at about 0.15 m/s, occasionally swimming faster. It is unlikely that all dives to depths ³ 4 m are dedicated to foraging. However, the temporal segregation of dive types suggests that all types are used during foraging, although they may represent different strategies.

Diving patterns of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea, the Netherlands and Germany, as indicated by VHF telemetry

Ries, Edith H.; Traut, Ilona M.; Paffen, Petra; Goedhart, Paul W. 1997. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 75, 2063-2068.

The diving behavior of 25 harbor seals Phoca vitulina (14 females and 11 males), of various body lengths was monitored by means of VHF telemetry at different locations in the Wadden Sea during late autumn in 1991 and 1992. Median dive durations for individual seals ranged from 46 s to 2.9 min. The maximum dive recorded was 31 min, performed by an adult male, which represents the longest dive reported for harbor seals.

Dive times and ventilation patterns of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)

Chu, Kevin C. 1988. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 66, 1322-1327.

Humpback whale seasonal occurrence and annual return to Gulf of Maine

Clapham, P.J.; et. al. 1993. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 71, 440-443.

Dive behavior and estimated energy expenditure of foraging humpback whales in southeast Alaska

Dolphin, William Ford. 1987. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 65, 354-362.

Ventilation and dive patterns of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, on their Alaskan feeding grounds

Dolphin, William Ford. 1987. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 65, 83-90.

Foraging dive patterns of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in southeast Alaska: a cost-benefit analysis

Dolphin, William Ford. 1988. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 66, 2432-2441.

Fastest documented migration of a North Pacific humpback whale

Gabriele, Christine M.; Straley, Janice M.; Herman, Louis M.; Coleman, Richard J. 1996. Marine Mammal Science. Vol. 12:3, 457-464.

An individually identified humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, migrated between Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska and the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii in 39 d. This is the shortest documented migration time for a North Pacific humpback, which travels annually between summer high-latitude feeding areas and winter calving grounds in tropical waters.

Local and migratory movements of Hawaiian humpback whales tracked by satellite telemetry

Mate, Bruce R.; Gisiner, Robert; Mobley, Joseph. 1998. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 76, 863-868.

We examined inter-island movements and offshore migrations of six humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) tagged during March and April 1995 with satellite-monitored radio tags off Kaua¢i, Hawai¢i. The tags transmitted 0.5–17 days (x– = 8.5 6 2.7 days) and produced 1–66 locations that met our screening criteria. Total travel distances per individual ranged from 30 to 1860 km. After screening criteria were applied, satellite-acquired locations ranged from 1.8 to 3.9/day for individuals (group average 2.7/day). One adult traveled 250 km to Oahu in 4 days. Another visited Penguin Bank and five islands (820 km) in 10 days, suggesting faster inter-island movement than had been previously thought. Three whales traveled independent, parallel courses toward the upper Gulf of Alaska on north-northeast headings. A female with a calf was the fastest: 670 km in 4.5 days (150 km/day). Two whales traveled for 14.7 and 17 days, an average speed of 110 km/day (4.5 km/h). A 4200-km migration to the upper Gulf of Alaska at that speed would take 39 days. If the fastest whale’s speed was maintained on a straight course, the entire migration could be accomplished in as little time as 28 days. Based on the two longest tracks, the first third of the migration route is within 18 of magnetic north. These data represent the first route and travel speeds for humpbacks migrating from Hawaii toward Alaska.

Diving and foraging behavior of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea)

Eckert, Scott A.; Eckert, Karen L.; Ponganis, P.; Kooyman, G. L. 1989. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Vol. 67, 2834-2840.

Time-depth recorders deployed on six gravid leatherbacks nesting on Sandy Point, St. Croix. dive duration avgd 9.9 min/dive; mean dive depths 61.6 m; one turtle dived twice beyond limits of TDR >1000 m. Distinct diel periodicity: submergence intervals longest at dawn, declined throughout the day, shortest at dusk. Dive pattern suggests nocturnal feeding within the deep scattering layer.

Swim speed and movement patterns of gravid leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at St Croix, US Virgin Islands

Eckert, Scott A. 2002. Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 205, 3689-3697.

Swim speed, dive behavior and movements were recorded for seven female leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) during a single internesting interval near St Croix in the US Virgin Islands. Modal speeds ranged from 0.56 to 0.84ms–1, maximum speed range 1.9–2.8ms–1. Turtles swam continuously throughout the day and night. There were two swim-speed patterns; the most common was slightly U-shaped, with high speeds at the initiation and conclusion of the dive, and the less common was continuous highspeed swimming. The U-shaped speed patterns were coincident with vertical diving by the turtles, while the second pattern occurred most frequently during the daytime, with the turtle swimming within 2m of the surface. This latter swim behavior appeared to be designed to maximize efficiency for long-distance travel. The hypothesis that leatherbacks rest or bask at midday during their internesting interval is refuted by this study.

Endangered species: Where leatherback turtles meet fisheries

Ferraroli, Sandra; Georges, Jean-Yves; Gaspar, Philippe; Maho, Yvon Le. 2004. Nature. Vol. 429:6991, 521-522.

Conservation efforts should focus on hot spots frequented by these ancient reptiles. The dramatic worldwide decline in populations of the leatherback turtle is largely due to the high mortality associated with their interaction with fisheries, so a reduction of this overlap is critical to their survival. The discovery of narrow migration corridors used by the leatherbacks in the Pacific Ocean raised the possibility of protecting the turtles by restricting fishing in these key areas. Here we use satellite tracking to show that there is no equivalent of these corridors in the North Atlantic Ocean, because the turtles disperse actively over the whole area. But we were able to identify a few "hot spots" where leatherbacks meet fisheries and where conservation efforts should be focused. The few hot spots where turtles are likely to encounter coastal or pelagic fishing fleets are very different and are widely scattered across the Atlantic basin. The article highlights the need to develop locally adapted, but basin-wide and internationally coordinated, conservation strategies for preserving the last large population of leatherback turtles.

Flexible foraging movements of leatherback turtles across the North Atlantic Ocean

Hays, Graeme C.; Hobson, Victoria J.; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Righton, David; Sims, David W. 2006. Ecology. Vol. 87:10, 2647-2656.

Some marine species have been shown to target foraging at particular hotspots of high prey abundance. However, we show here that in the year after a nesting season, female leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Atlantic generally spend relatively little time in fixed hotspots, especially those with a surface signature revealed in satellite imagery, but rather tend to have a pattern of near continuous traveling. Associated with this traveling, distinct changes in dive behavior indicate that turtles constantly fine tune their foraging behavior and diel activity patterns in association with local conditions. Switches between nocturnal vs. diurnal activity are rare in the animal kingdom but may be essential for survival on a diet of gelatinous zooplankton where patches of high prey availability are rare. These results indicate that in their first year after nesting, leatherback turtles do not fit the general model of migration where responses to resources are suppressed during transit. However, their behavior may be different in their sabbatical years away from nesting beaches. Our results highlight the importance of whole-ocean fishing gear regulations to minimize turtle bycatch.

The 7000-km oceanic journey of a leatherback turtle tracked by satellite

Hughes, G.R.; Luschi, P.; Mencacci, R.; Papi, F. 1998. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 229, 209-217.

A leatherback turtle nesting on a KwaZulu-Natal beach was tracked by satellite for nearly 7000 km during internesting movements, rapid straight transfers and feeding-related movements in the Southern Ocean. Some parts of the track reveal the ability to maintain a straight course in the absence of cues deriving from the coastline or shallow bottoms. Swimming speed and diving behaviour varied in different segments of the journey. The value of satellite telemetry for planning conservation strategies is emphasized.

Expanded thermal niche for a diving vertebrate: A leatherback turtle diving into near-freezing water

James, Michael C.; Davenport, John; Hays, Graeme C. 2006. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 335, 221-226.

The global distribution of extant reptiles is more limited than that of mammals or birds, with low reptilian species diversity at high latitudes. Central to this limited geographical distribution is the ectothermic nature of reptiles, which means that they generally become torpid at cold temperatures. However, here we report the first detailed telemetry from a leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) diving in cold water at high latitude. An individual equipped with a satellite tag that relayed temperature–depth profiles dived continuously for many weeks into sub-surface waters as cold as 0.4 °C. Global warming will likely increase the foraging range of leatherback turtles further into temperate and boreal waters.

Movements and diving behavior of a leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea

Keinath, J. A.; Musick, J. A. 1993. Copeia. Vol. 1993:4, 1010-1017.

Leatherback turtle nesting on St. Croix, Virgin Islands, fitted with satellite transmitter and released on May 3, 1989. Tracked 18 days, traveled a minimum of 515.2 km at an overall mean speed of 1.2 km/h and nested twice more, first on Vieques Island and then on Culebra Island. Mean surface duration was 20.6 s, mean dive duration was 2.27 min per event, and in a 12 hour time period, the animal dove 319 times. Mean submergence duration for 32 12-h pds was 625.4 min (86.9%) and mean surface duration was 94.6 min per 12-hr pd (13.1%).

Migration corridor for sea turtles

Morreale, Stephen J.; Standora, Edward A.; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V. 1996. Nature. Vol. 384, 319-320.

Using satellite telemetry, tracked leatherback turtles over great distances and have discovered the existence of a distinct migration route across open water. tagged 8 females after they laid their eggs on a nesting beach near Playa Grande, Costa Rica. Over the four consecutive years of our study, the tracks of all 8 turtles were within a relatively narrow corridor extending southwestwards into the open Pacific, conservatively estimated to be less than 500 km wide. Although we recorded a dive of 744 m, most dives remained in the upper 300 m of the water column.

Do leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea forage during the breeding season? A combination of data-logging devices provide new insights

Myers, Andrew E.; Hays, Graeme C. 2006. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol. 322, 259-267.

Animals which undertake migrations from foraging grounds to suitable breeding areas must adopt strategies in these new conditions in order to minimise the rate at which body condition deteriorates (which will occur due to oogenesis or provisioning for young). For some animals this involves continuing foraging, whereas for others the optimal strategy is to fast during the breeding season. The leatherback turtle undertakes long-distance migrations from temperate zones to tropical breeding areas, and in some of these areas it has been shown to exhibit diving behaviour indicative of foraging. We used conventional time–depth recorders and a single novel mouth-opening sensor to investigate the foraging behaviour of leatherback turtles in the southern Caribbean. Diving behaviour suggested attempted foraging on vertically migrating prey with significantly more diving to a more consistent depth occurring during the night. No obvious prey manipulation was detected by the mouth sensor, but rhythmic mouth opening did occur during specific phases of dives, suggesting that the turtle was relying on gustatory cues to sense its immediate environment. Patterns of diving in conjunction with these mouth-opening activities imply that leatherbacks are attempting to forage during the breeding season and that gustatory cues are important to leatherbacks.

Respiratory frequency, dive behaviour and social interactions of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea during the inter-nesting interval

Reina, Richard D.; Abernathy, Kyler J.; Marshall, Greg J.; Spotila, James R. 2005. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 316, 1-16.

We collected simultaneous dive Time Depth Recorder (TDR) data and video images from free swimming adult female leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, during the first 24 h after nesting on the beach, in order to determine relationships between dive parameters, activity, overall respiratory frequency and behaviour. We identified three different underwater locomotory activities (subsurface swimming, V-shaped dives and U-shaped dives) from video and TDR data that varied in their mean depth, duration and a number of other parameters. Overall respiratory frequency (overall fR) was significantly different between all locomotory activities, with turtles taking 1.7F0.1 breaths min1 while subsurface swimming, 0.78 breaths min1 after V-shaped dives and 0.57 breaths min1 after U-shaped dives. Descent rates and ascent rates were significantly faster in U-shaped dives (descent 0.19F0.010 m s1, ascent 0.28F0.015 m s1) than in V-shaped dives (descent 0.10F0.008 m s1, ascent 0.12F0.012 m s1). Flipper stroke rates were significantly lower during the bottom component of U-shaped dives (0.18F0.02 strokes s1) than during the descent (0.29F0.03 strokes s1) or ascent (0.29F0.03 strokes s1). From overall fR and flipper stroke rate data, we inferred that turtles used less energy during U-shaped dives than the other activity types. We recorded interactions between male turtles and the study females that lasted up to 11 min, during which male turtles displayed the characteristic courtship behaviour of sea turtles. It appeared that females attempted to avoid males by aborting ascent and extending dive duration to swim to the sea floor when males were present.

Heart rates and diving behavior of leatherback sea turtles in the eastern Pacific Ocean

Southwood, Amanda L.; Andrews, Russel D.; Lutcavage, Molly E.; Paladino, Frank V.; West, Nigel H.; George, Robert H.; Jones, David R. 1999. Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 202:9, 1115-1125.

Heart rates and diving behavior of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) were monitored at sea during the internesting interval. Instruments that recorded the electrocardiogram and the depth and duration of dives were deployed on six female leatherback turtles as they laid eggs at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. Turtles dived continually for the majority of the internesting interval and spent 57–68 % of the time at sea submerged. Mean dive depth was 19±1 m (mean ± S.D.) and the mean dive duration was 7.4±0.6 min. Heart rate declined immediately upon submergence and continued to fall during descent. All t urtles showed an increase in heart rate before surfacing. The mean heart rate during dives of 17.4±0.9 beats min-1 (mean ± S.D.) was significantly lower than the mean heart rate at the surface of 24.9±1.3 beats min-1 (P<0.05). Instantaneous heart rates as low as 1.05 beats min-1 were recorded during a 34 min dive. The mean heart rate over the entire dive cycle (dive + succeeding surface interval; 19.4±1.3 beats min-1) was more similar to the heart rate during diving than to the heart rate at the surface. Although dive and surface heart rates were significantly different from each other, heart rates during diving were 70 % of heart rates at the surface, showing that leatherback turtles do not experience a dramatic bradycardia during routine diving.

Bioenergetics and diving activity of internesting leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Costa Rica

Wallace, Bryan P.; Williams, Cassondra L.; Paladino, Frank V.; Morreale, Stephen J.; Lindstrom, R. Todd; Spotila, James R. 2005. Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 208:20, 3873-3884.

Physiology, environment and life history demands interact to influence marine turtle bioenergetics and activity. However, metabolism and diving behavior of free-swimming marine turtles have not been measured simultaneously. Using doubly labeled water, we obtained the first field metabolic rates (FMRs; 0.20–0.74·W·kg–1) and water fluxes (16–30%·TBW·day–1, where TBW=total body water) for free-ranging marine turtles and combined these data with dive information from electronic archival tags to investigate the bioenergetics and diving activity of reproductive adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Mean dive durations (7.8±2.4·min (±1·S.D.), bottom times (2.7±0.8·min), and percentage of time spent in water temperatures (Tw) 24°C (9.5±5.7%) increased with increasing mean maximum dive depths (22.6±7.1·m; all P0.001). The FMRs increased with longer mean dive durations, bottom times and surface intervals and increased time spent in Tw24°C (all r20.99). This suggests that low FMRs and activity levels, combined with shuttling between different water temperatures, could allow leatherbacks to avoid overheating while in warm tropical waters. Additionally, internesting leatherback dive durations were consistently shorter than aerobic dive limits calculated from our FMRs (11.7–44.3·min). Our results indicate that internesting female leatherbacks maintained low FMRs and activity levels, thereby spending relatively little energy while active at sea. Future studies should incorporate data on metabolic rate, dive patterns, water temperatures, and body temperatures to develop further the relationship between physiological and life history demands and marine turtle bioenergetics and activity.

Summertime foraging ecology of North Atlantic right whales

Baumgartner, Mark F.; Mate, B. R. 2003. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol. 264, 123-135.

North Atlantic right whales were instrumented with suction-cup mounted, time-depth recorders (TDR) during the summers of 2000 and 2001 to examine their diving and foraging behavior. Simultaneous observations of temperature, salinity and the vertical distribution of their principal prey, Calanus finmarchicus stage 5 copepodites (C5), were obtained along each whale=92s track with a conductivity-temperature-depth instrument (CTD) and an optical plankton counter (OPC). Right whale feeding dives were characterized by rapid descent from the surface to a particular depth between 80 and 175 m, remarkable fidelity to that depth for 5 to 14 min and then rapid ascent back to the surface. The average depth of dive was strongly and positively correlated with both the average depth of peak C. finmarchicus C5 abundance and the average depth of the bottom mixed layer=92s upper surface. Significantly longer surface intervals were observed for reproductively active females and their calves when compared to other individuals, indicating that this critical segment of the population may be at increased risk of ship strikes owing to their diving behavior. Ingestion rates calculated from TDR and OPC data exceeded estimated daily metabolic requirements for most of the tagged right whales; however, short deployment durations and uncertainty in metabolic rates make it impossible to judge whether individual right whales were obtaining sufficient energy to meet the metabolic costs of reproduction. Improvements in attachment durations and the development of novel methods to estimate the metabolic rates of large whales in situ are required to determine whether right whale reproduction is limited by insufficient food resources.

Two-way trans-Atlantic migration of a North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)

Jacobsen, K.-O.; Marx, M.; Oien, N. 2004. Marine Mammal Science. Vol. 20:1, 161-166.

Satellite-monitored movements of the northern right whale

Mate, Bruce R.; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Kraus, Scott D. 1997. Journal of Wildlife Management. Vol. 61:4, 1393-1405.

The northern right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, remains the most critically endangered of the large cetaceans despite international protection since 1936. We used satellite-monitored radotags to identify the late-summer and fall habitat use patterns of right whales in the western North Atlantic. We tagged 9 whales in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and successfully tracked them for a total of 13,910 km (a = 1,546 km) in 195 whale-tracking days (range 742 days each, f = 21.7 days). Individuals tracked for more than 12 consecutive days (N = 6 whales) left the BOF at least once and had higher average speeds (i= 3.5 kdhr) than those that stayed within the bay (f = 1.1 k d r ) . Three of the tagged whales not only left the BOF, but traveled more than 2,000 km each before returning to the general tagging area. One adult female with a calf went to New Jersey and back to the BOF (3,761 km) in 42 days. Most locations were along bank edges, in basins or along the continental shelf. Eighty percent of locations were in water

Dive patterns of tagged right whales in the Great South Channel

Winn, Howard E.; Goodyear, Jeffrey D.; Kenney, Robert D.; Petricig, Richard O. 1995. Continental Shelf Research. Vol. 15:4/5, 593-611.